Red wavelengths are lower in energy and only boost the electron to a lower energy level than can blue light. Figure 5. As shown in detail in the absorption spectra, chlorophyll absorbs light in the red (long wavelength) and the blue (short wavelength) regions of the visible light spectrum. In photosynthesis, Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll A and Chlorophyll B What gives off the color Chlorophyll A Chlorophyll A absorbs light in the blue-violet region. A chelate consists of a central metal ion bonded to a large organic molecule, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and other elements such as oxygen and nitro… The red light has longer wavelength and the blue light has shorter wavelength. in vivo infrared absorption maximum (nm) Bacteriochlorophyll a. Purple bacteria, Heliobacteria, Green Sulfur Bacteria, Chloroflexi, Chloracidobacterium thermophilum. Chlorophyll is a pigment that absorbs wavelengths at each end of the color spectrum, red and blue/violet, but doesn't absorb the wavelength in the middle of the spectrum, which is green. white black green violet 1 See answer soapychair is waiting for your help. The Em for P700 is approximately 500mV, while the Em for P680 is approximately 1,100-1,200 mV. Yet, the porphyrin ring of chlorophyll A has CH 3 side groups. Chlorophyll a absorbs light with wavelengths of 430nm (blue) and 662nm (red). blue 2. Chlorophyll a is essential for most photosynthetic organisms to release chemical energy but is not the only pigment that can be used for photosynthesis. 835–850, 1020–1040. By extracting pigments from leaves and placing these samples into a spectrophotometer, scientists can identify which wavelengths of light an organism can absorb. As white sunlight falls on a chlorophyll layer, the green light with a wavelength between 480 and 550 nm is not absorbed but is reflected which is why plant chlorophylls and whole leaves are green. Chlorophyll b primarily absorbs blue light and is used to complement the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a by extending the range of light wavelengths a photosynthetic organism is able to absorb. Figure 4. Photosynthesis is where plants use sunlight to create energy for themselves. As a food coloring, chlorophyll is used to add a green color to pasta, the spirit absinthe, and other foods and beverages. 6-What wavelength of light does chlorophyll b absorb best? Chlorophyll a: This is the most abundant pigment in plants. In the case of photosynthesis, light energy is converted into chemical energy, which photoautotrophs use to build carbohydrate molecules. Hereof, at what wavelength does chlorophyll a absorb the greatest amount of light? The best wavelength of the light absorbed by chlorophyll a is blue and red. Yes chlorophyll effect the color of the plant, the wavelengths of light that they absorb do not reflect the color that they emit out. 3.  The porphyrin ring of bacteriochlorophyll is saturated, and lacking alternation of double and single bonds causing variation in absorption of light. Two electrons need to be passed to an electron acceptor for the process of photosynthesis to proceed. How much energy is required to promote one mole of electrons from an n=1 orbital to an n=4 orbitali . Chlorophyll d, found in a specific group of cyanobacteria, absorbs the most light at roughly 697 nanometers, a slightly shorter wavelength than the absorption of the new chlorophyll. Figure 2.  Chlorophyll a absorbs its energy from the Violet-Blue and Reddish orange-Red wavelengths, and little from … When a leaf is exposed to full sun, the light-dependent reactions are required to process an enormous amount of energy; if that energy is not handled properly, it can do significant damage. The X-axis (horizontal axis) lists the wavelength of the light in nanometers (nm), and the background of the graphic shows the color cf light each wavelength corresponds with. The leaves do not have a mask of chlorophyll allowing the xanthophyll to absorb light that is not captured by chlorophyll. The magnesium center uniquely defines the structure as a chlorophyll molecule. Certain objects, such as a prism or a drop of water, disperse white light to reveal the colors to the human eye. β-carotene is responsible for the orange color in carrots. This reflectance gives chlorophyll its green appearance. In particular, chlorophyll absorbs blue and red light while allowing green light to be reflected (or transmitted). So, both reaction center have chlorophyll A, which can absorb a range of wavelengths with maxima 662 nm. These two systems are different in their redox potentials for one-electron oxidation. Chlorophyll a absorbs wavelengths from either end of the visible spectrum (blue and red), but not green. They are also fat soluble. Pigment Color Wavelengths (colors) absorbed Chlorophyll A Green Blue/Red Chlorophyll B Green Blue/Red Carotene Orange 400-500nm Xanthophyll Yellow 435nm Anthocyanin Blue 500-550nm 2. The sun emits energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The only difference between Chlorophyll A and chl B is one methyl group is changed to a formyl group but this changes the wavelength that can be absorbed by the molecule. Each type of pigment can be identified by the specific pattern of wavelengths it absorbs from visible light, which is the absorption spectrum. Did you have an idea for improving this content? It contains a hydrophobic (fat soluble) phytol chain that allow it to be embedded in a lipid membrane. about 460 nm 3. Chlorophylls are unable to absorb green, yellow and orange parts of the spectrum. Visible light constitutes only one of many types of electromagnetic radiation emitted from the sun and other stars. 1. Chlorophylls are unable to absorb green, yellow and orange parts of the spectrum. Chlorophyll A and B reflect GREEN LIGHT and absorb RED AND BLUE. Plants that commonly grow in the shade have adapted to low levels of light by changing the relative concentrations of their chlorophyll pigments. Not all photosynthetic organisms have full access to sunlight. Because green is reflected or transmitted, chlorophyll appears green. , Absorption of light by photosynthetic pigments converts photons into chemical energy. If only chlorophyll a were involved in the light reactions, would blue light (wavelength about 490 nm) be effective in driving photosynthesis? Light with a wavelength of 460 nm is not significantly absorbed by chlorophyll a, but will instead be captured by chlorophyll b, which absorbs strongly at that wavelength. In these complexes, chlorophyll serves three functions. There are six types of chlorophylls in plants. Special plant lights increase the amount of light of this wavelength that they produce. Plants absorb the portion of light in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm. However, autotrophs only use a few specific components of sunlight. http://email@example.com, Describe the visible and electromagnetic spectrums of light as they apply to photosynthesis. However, none of them absorbs green, so the leaf looks green because that light is reflected to our eyes instead of being absorbed by the leaf. Figure 5. Anthocyanins are a fifth class of pigments. Although, peak differs for two photosystems because of antenary proteins. The rest of the structure called a tetrapyrrolic ring rests outside of … Chlorophyll absorbs blue and red light The fact that it is green means that it absorbs blue and red light and reflects green when it is illuminated by white (all wavelengths) light. Water typically enters the the plant through the roots and travels upward to the stem and leaves. 450 nanometers . Scientists can determine the amount of energy of a wave by measuring its wavelength, the distance between consecutive points of a wave. These two types are efficient in absorbing the light, and are effective photoreceptors. It contains a hydrophobic (fat soluble) phytol chain that allow it to be embedded in a lipid membrane. The wavelength of a single wave is the distance between two consecutive points of similar position (two crests or two troughs) along the wave. The function of the vast majority of chlorophyll (up to several hundred molecules per photosystem) is to absorb light. Like all other forms of kinetic energy, light can travel, change form, and be harnessed to do work. , InChI=1S/C55H73N4O5.Mg/c1-13-39-35(8)42-28-44-37(10)41(24-25-48(60)64-27-26-34(7)23-17-22-33(6)21-16-20-32(5)19-15-18-31(3)4)52(58-44)50-51(55(62)63-12)54(61)49-38(11)45(59-53(49)50)30-47-40(14-2)36(9)43(57-47)29-46(39)56-42;/h13,26,28-33,37,41,51H,1,14-25,27H2,2-12H3,(H-,56,57,58,59,61);/q-1;+2/p-1/b34-26+;/t32-,33-,37+,41+,51-;/m1./s1, InChI=1S/C55H73N4O5.Mg/c1-13-39-35(8)42-28-44-37(10)41(24-25-48(60)64-27-26-34(7)23-17-22-33(6)21-16-20-32(5)19-15-18-31(3)4)52(58-44)50-51(55(62)63-12)54(61)49-38(11)45(59-53(49)50)30-47-40(14-2)36(9)43(57-47)29-46(39)56-42;/h13,26,28-33,37,41,51H,1,14-25,27H2,2-12H3,(H-,56,57,58,59,61);/q-1;+2/p-1/b34-26+;/t32?,33?,37-,41-,51+;/m0./s1, CCC1=C(C2=NC1=CC3=C(C4=C([N-]3)C(=C5[C@H]([C@@H](C(=N5)C=C6C(=C(C(=C2)[N-]6)C=C)C)C)CCC(=O)OC/C=C(\C)/CCCC(C)CCCC(C)CCCC(C)C)[C@H](C4=O)C(=O)OC)C)C.[Mg+2], COC(=O)C9C(=O)c6c(C)c3n7c6c9c2C(CCC(=O)COCC=C(C)CCCC(C)CCCC(C)CCCC(C)C)C(C)c1cc5n8c(cc4n([Mg]78n12)c(c=3)c(CC)c4c)c(C=C)c5C, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, "Ch. In both photosystems, reaction centre consists of chlorophyll A molecules. Effective Absorbing Wavelength. As shown in detail in the absorption spectra, chlorophyll absorbs light in the red (long wavelength) and the blue (short wavelength) regions of the visible light spectrum. 435 nm 525 nm 680 nm One cannot tell from this graph. Figure 1. Energy levels lower than those represented by red light are insufficient to raise an orbital electron to a populatable, excited (quantum) state. The electromagnetic spectrum (Figure 2) shows several types of electromagnetic radiation originating from the sun, including X-rays and ultraviolet (UV) rays. Short, tight waves carry the most energy. When considering the structure, it has a porphyrin ring similar to chlorophyll B.  This photosynthetic pigment is essential for photosynthesis in eukaryotes, cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes because of its role as primary electron donor in the electron transport chain. Plants also require water to make their own food. (credit: Jason Hollinger). Chlorophyll A: Chlorophyll A is the principal pigment that captures sunlight for photosynthesis. Some organisms grow underwater where light intensity and quality decrease and change with depth. Wavelength of Absorption: The wavelength of absorption of a compound is the complementary of the wavelength that is emitted.  Chlorophyll a can also be found in very small quantities in the green sulfur bacteria, an anaerobic photoautotroph. The Chlorophyll a biosynthetic pathway utilizes a variety of enzymes. Carotenoids absorb in the short-wavelength blue region, and reflect the longer yellow, red, and orange wavelengths. This wavelength is strong in natural sunlight, and somewhat present in incandescent lights, but is very weak in traditional fluorescent lights. It participates mainly in oxygenic photosynthesis in which oxygen is the main by-product of the process. So retinal pigments can only “see” (absorb) 700 nm to 400 nm light, which is therefore called visible light. Chlorophyll a absorbs light in the blue-violet region, while chlorophyll b absorbs red-blue light. Chlorophyll a is the primary photosynthetic pigment while chlorophyll b is the accessory pigment that collects energy and passes it on to chlorophyll a. More chlorophyll b in PS II transfers more energy to chlorophyll a at peak 680 nm. Chlorophyll a absorbs energy from wavelengths of blue-violet and orange-red light while chlorophyll b absorbs energy from wavelengths of green light. These two types of chlorophyll differ only slightly, in the composition of a single side chain. It reflects green light strongly so it appears green to us. Light energy radiating onto the chloroplast strikes the pigments in the thylakoid membrane and excites their electrons. ... how plants use light to carry on this important process. Relevance. Part III: Fluorescence of Chlorophyll When light is absorbed by pigments in an living plant the energy from that light is used for photosynthesis. (credit: modification of work by NASA). Chlorophyll a reflects green and yellow-green wavelengths. 10- How are photosynthetic bacteria and chloroplasts related. 3. How do different color filters affect plant growth? At the other end of the spectrum toward red, the wavelengths are longer and have lower energy (Figure 3). Plants that use photosynthesis to make their own food are called autotrophs. Chlorophyll a: This is the most abundant pigment in plants. Bacteriochlorophyll a and b absorb infrared radiation (in the range of 800 to 1,040 nm) and are found in the purple bacteria.  For instance, the only difference between chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b is that chlorophyll b has an aldehyde instead of a methyl group at the C-7 position.. Violet blue wavelength is available at 450 nm and red at 650 nm. 1. And Chlorophyll B? They absorb red, blue and violet wavelengths and reflects green colour out. When a person turns on a lamp, electrical energy becomes light energy. Chlorophyll gives plants their green color because it does not absorb the green wavelengths of white light. Chlorophyll gives plants their green color because it does not absorb the green wavelengths of white light. Accessory photosynthetic pigments broaden the spectrum of light absorbed, increasing the range of wavelengths that can be used in photosynthesis. In low light conditions, plants produce a greater ratio of chlorophyll b to chlorophyll a molecules, increasing photosynthetic yield. I need this for carotene, xanthophyll, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll b. This radiation exists at different wavelengths, each of which has its own characteristic energy. 2. 2. Figure 3. This may seem illogical, but think of it in terms of a piece of moving a heavy rope. There are various types of chlorophyll structures, but plants contain chlorophyll a and b. For the same reasons, plants pigment molecules absorb only light in the wavelength range of 700 nm to 400 nm; plant physiologists refer to this range for plants as photosynthetically active radiation. The visible light seen by humans as white light actually exists in a rainbow of colors. Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplasts of plants. The peaks in the line indicate the wavelengths of visible light that chlorophyll a absorbs more of and, therefore, uses in photosynthess. Chlorophyll a absorbs light with wavelengths of 430nm(blue) and 662nm(red). Chlorophyll d is found in a type of cyanobacterium that lives in areas lacking visible light, but containing infrared radiation (700 nm to 730 nm), like nestled underneath corals and algae. Which option is a light wavelength that chlorophyll can absorb? Each chlorophyll pigment A or B molecule differs in the bonds so absorbs a different wavelength. An instrument called a spectrophotometer can differentiate which wavelengths of light a substance can absorb. That particular light wavelength is reflected from the plant, so it appears green. Bacterial group. Chlorophyll a absorbs wavelengths from either end of the visible spectrum (blue and red), but not green. e. Both carotenoids and anthocyanins reflect red wavelengths. Carotenoids absorb in the short-wavelength blue region, and reflect the longer yellow, red, and orange wavelengths. A form of chlorophyll that absorbs light in the violet to red spectrum (approximately 400-700 nm wavelength range) and reflects green light (500-570 nm wavelength), which imparts the characteristic green color to land plants. All electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, is characterized by its wavelength. The initial steps incorporate glutamic acid into 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA); two molecules of ALA are then reduced to porphobilinogen (PBG), and four molecules of PBG are coupled, forming protoporphyrin IX. There are five major chlorophylls: a, b, c and d and a related molecule found in prokaryotes called bacteriochlorophyll. (a) Chlorophyll a, (b) chlorophyll b, and (c) β-carotene are hydrophobic organic pigments found in the thylakoid membrane. Because green is reflected or transmitted, chlorophyll appears green. about 460 nm 3. Absorbing Color. 1. The longer the wavelength (or the more stretched out it appears in the diagram), the less energy is carried. 7: Topic 7.11: Chlorophyll Biosynthesis", "Pre-Loading of Chlorophyll Synthase with Tetraprenyl Diphosphate is an Obligatory Step in Chlorophyll Biosynthesis", "How photosynthetic reaction centers control oxidation power in chlorophyll pairs P680, P700, and P870", 1,7-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chlorophyll_a&oldid=998474220, Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need indexing, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 15:10. That particular light wavelength is reflected from the plant, so it appears green. Accessory pigments absorb energy that chlorophyll a does not absorb. The only difference between Chlorophyll A and chl B is one methyl group is changed to a formyl group but this changes the wavelength that can be absorbed by the molecule. Additional methods for the identification of plant pigments include various types of chromatography that separate the pigments by their relative affinities to solid and mobile phases. This is background information for my lab report. Four nitrogen atoms from the chlorin surround and bind the magnesium atom. The molecular structure of chlorophyll a consists of a chlorin ring, whose four nitrogen atoms surround a central magnesium atom, and has several other attached side chains and a hydrocarbon tail. blue 2.  carotenoids function as photosynthetic pigments that are very efficient molecules for the disposal of excess energy. Each pigment has (d) a unique absorbance spectrum. Chlorophyll a absorbs wavelengths from either end of the visible spectrum (blue and red), but not green. Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplasts of plants. Accessory pigments include xanthophylls and carotenoids (such as beta-carotene). Accessory photosynthetic pigments, including chlorophyll b and beta-carotene, absorb energy that chlorophyll a does not absorb. 9-What is the relationship between the absorbance spectrum and the action spectrum ? Which wavelength does chlorophyll a most readily absorb Chlorophyll b 2 What from SCIENCE bio 4u at Orchard Park Secondary School It reflects green light strongly so it appears green to us. What percent of light energy absorbed does this peak represent? Which wavelengths do they absorb? d. Carotenoids absorb blue and violet wavelengths and reflect red, orange, and yellow. Both Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b can best absorb light at the 450 nm to 650 nm spectrum. Chlorophyll A: Chlorophyll A absorbs violet-blue and orange-red light from the spectrum. They are known as P680 for Photosystem II and P700 for Photosystem I. Chlorophyll a absorbs violet and orange light the most. How much of this color is being reflected? Accessory photosynthetic pigments broaden the spectrum of light absorbed, increasing the range of wavelengths that can be used in photosynthesis. d. When chlorophyll b absorbs light, electrons transition energy levels. The difference between wavelengths relates to the amount of energy carried by them. What wavelength of light does each plant pigment absorb most strongly? Absorption spectra showing how the different side chains in chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b result in slightly different absorptions of visible light. Difference Between Chlorophyll A and B Contribution in Photosynthesis. Chlorophyll a is the primary photosynthetic pigment while chlorophyll b is the accessory pigment that collects energy and passes it on to chlorophyll a.  Chlorophyll a also transfers resonance energy in the antenna complex, ending in the reaction center where specific chlorophylls P680 and P700 are located.. Approximately what wavelength of light is best absorbed by chlorophyll a, the pigment that participates directly in the light reactions? Pigments reflect or transmit the wavelengths they cannot absorb, making them appear in the corresponding color. Figure 4. Since the chlorophyll a molecules only capture certain wavelengths, organisms may use accessory pigments to capture a wider range of light energy shown as the yellow circles. Green light is not absorbed but reflected, making the plant appear green. Chlorophyll absorbs most of the colors in the color spectrum, and reflects only green and yellow wavelengths of light. Chlorophyll B: Chlorophyll B is the accessory pigment that collects sunlight and passes into chlorophyll A. Absorption Range. What is photosynthesis? This forms an ester of the carboxylic acid group in chlorophyllide a with the 20-carbon diterpene alcohol phytol.  Within the reaction centers of both photosystems there are a pair of chlorophyll a molecules that pass electrons on to the transport chain through redox reactions. Animals that eat plants or other animals are called heterotrophs. Chlorophyll a contains a magnesium ion encased in a large ring structure known as a chlorin.The chlorin ring is a heterocyclic compound derived from pyrrole.Four nitrogen atoms from the chlorin surround and bind the magnesium atom. Chlorophyll a has a long hydrophobic tail, which anchors the molecule to other hydrophobic proteins in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast. They both also absorb light of other wavelengths with less intensity. What wavelength of light do chlorophyll and carotenoid absorb at ? Before photosynthesis can occur, light must be absorbed by pigments in the plant. Chlorophylls and carotenoids are the two major classes of photosynthetic pigments found in plants and algae; each class has multiple types of pigment molecules. 85% 4. Chlorophyll a is the most commonly used photosynthetic pigment and absorbs blue, red and violet wavelengths in the visible spectrum. The chlorin ring is a heterocyclic compound derived from pyrrole.  Once detached from the porphyrin ring, this long hydrocarbon tail becomes the precursor of two biomarkers, pristane and phytane, which are important in the study of geochemistry and the determination of petroleum sources. This lets the xanthophyll give a yellow color to the leaves in the fall. Add your answer and earn points. Chlorophyll b absorbs mostly blue and yellow. 1. Chlorophyll a absorbs energy from wavelengths of blue-violet and orange-red light while chlorophyll b absorbs energy from wavelengths of green light. to chlorophyll a. c. The presence of carotenoids in a leaf is masked by the presence of chlorophyll throughout the growing season. Which of the colors absorbed by chlorophyll is seen least? ASIDE FROM CHLOROPHYLL THE OTHER PIGMENTS ARE :: Xanthophylls They are essentially oxidized Carotenoids and contain oxygen. What wavelengths of light does chlorophyll a absorb. Chlorophyll B: The wavelength which is effectively absorbed by chlorophyll B is 470 nm. Chlorophyll is a water-insoluble magnesium porphyrin compound. The different side groups in the two chlorophylls ‘tune’ the absorption spectrum to slightly different wavelengths. , Side chains are attached to the chlorin ring of the various chlorophyll molecules. The sun emits an enormous amount of electromagnetic radiation (solar energy). We’d love your input. 15% (100-85) 5. Carotenoids absorb in the short- wavelength blue region, and reflect the longer yellow, red, and orange wavelengths . Because green is reflected or transmitted, chlorophyll appears green.  Chlorophyll does not reflect light but chlorophyll-containing tissues appear green because green light, diffusively reflected by structures like cell walls, becomes enriched in the reflected light. Violet blue wavelength is available at 450 nm and red at 650 nm. 805, 830–890. Each type of electromagnetic radiation travels at a particular wavelength. It has the shortest wavelengths and the most energy. Because green is reflected or transmitted, chlorophyll appears green.  The addition of chlorophyll b next to chlorophyll a extends the absorption spectrum. Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b are found in higher plant chloroplasts and will be the focus of the following discussion. Chlorophyll a absorbs wavelengths from either end of the visible spectrum (blue and red), but not green. Plants that use photosynthesis to make their own food are called autotrophs. Chlorophyll b absorbs mostly blue and yellow light. What wavelengths of light does chlorophyll a absorb best What color are these 2. plants have their special sensitivity curve for photosynthesis. Many photosynthetic organisms have a mixture of pigments; using them, the organism can absorb energy from a wider range of wavelengths. This light energy is trapped by the green chlorophyll found in the chloroplasts of plant cells. 1 decade ago. Chlorophyll is a compound that is known as a chelate. raduoprea160 raduoprea160 Since green is the colour of clorophyll that means it reflects this color so it means it's poorly absorbed. The absorption spectrum of β-carotene (a carotenoid pigment) includes violet and blue-green light, as is indicated by its peaks at around 450 and 475 nm. Chlorophyll A: Chlorophyll A absorbs the light in the range of 430 nm to 660 nm. Refer to the preceding graph in arriving at your answers. Notice how each pigment has a distinct set of peaks and troughs, revealing a highly specific pattern of absorption. Chlorophyll a, gives absorption peaks at 430 nm and 662 nm, while Chlorophyll b gives peaks at 453 nm and 642 nm. Animals that eat plants or other animals are called heterotrophs. All plants, however, has chlorophyll a, which absorbs most strongly at ~450 nm, or a bright blue color. Humans can see only a fraction of this energy, which portion is therefore referred to as “visible light.” The manner in which solar energy travels is described as waves. Organic pigments, whether in the human retina or the chloroplast thylakoid, have a narrow range of energy levels that they can absorb. Which parts of the spectrum does chlorophyll a absorb best? Which of the colors absorbed by chlorophyll is seen least? What percent of light energy absorbed does this peak represent? The color that A single wave is measured from two consecutive points, such as from crest to crest or from trough to trough (Figure 1). The addition of chlorophyll b next to chlorophyll a extends the absorption spectrum. c What is the frequency, in MHz, associated with each wavelength? The thing that gives plants there color are the chlorophyll. The carotenoids found in fruit—such as the red of tomato (lycopene), the yellow of corn seeds (zeaxanthin), or the orange of an orange peel (β-carotene)—are used as advertisements to attract seed dispersers. The graph in Figure 4 shows the absorption spectra for chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and a type of carotenoid pigment called β-carotene (which absorbs blue and green light). What is its approximate wavelength?  In most plants, chlorophyll is derived from glutamate and is synthesised along a branched pathway that is shared with heme and siroheme.  It then transfers captured light from one pigment to the next as resonance energy, passing energy one pigment to the other until reaching the special chlorophyll a molecules in the reaction center. 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